Deforestation is now the second leading cause of global climate change, which poses a great threat to Human,Animals and little plant In the forestry’s, Desertification is a serious environmental problem, which involve degradation of land in arid region , semiarid, and dry sub-humid areas. It is caused primarily by human activities and other climatic variations
Desertification is the permanent decrease in biological productivity of dryland areas. Drylands comprise 41% of the earth’s land area and are home to roughly 2 billion people, or 34% of the earth’s population.
Currently, over 250 million people in more than 100 countries are directly affected by desertification and more are at risk. The situation is most severe in Africa, where 66% of the total land area is arid or semi-arid. Not only is desertification harmful to the earth and its inhabitants, but it is also expensive – each year,
Indeed ,as Africa’s tropical forests face challenges from deforestation, hunting, logging and mining, as well as climate change, there are also many other factors that were also responsible for such situation which need to be tackle, before its too late
The challenges are formidable. Humanity has long appreciated forests for the energy, food and medicine they provide, and as a source of wood products for construction and other purposes. But the role of forests in supporting agriculture, preserving biodiversity, protecting water supplies and moderating the impact of climate change are less well understood.
Climate change is a major issue for much of the world, but for Africa, in particular. And there’s much interest and concern around Africa’s forests, which is the second largest area of tropical forest in the world after the Amazon forest. And yet there’s been very little synthesis of the research that’s there.
Degradation of African soil causes decreased food production, damaging ecological effects, and an overall decrease in the quality of living in Africa,
The erosion caused by rains, rivers and winds as well as over-utilization of soils for agriculture and low use of manures have resulted in turning the soils infertile, as for example, in the plains of the Nile and the Orange River.
A main cause of soil degradation is lack of manufactured fertilizers being used, since African soil lacks organic sources of nutrients. The increase in population has also contributed when people need to crop, as a source of income, but do not take measures to protect the soil
Deforestation in Nigeria is caused by logging, subsistence agriculture, and the collection of wood for fuel. According to the gfy, deforestation has wiped out nearly 90% of Africa’s forest.
West Africa only has 22.8% of its moist forests left, and 81% of Nigeria’s old-growth forests disappeared within 15 years.
Deforestation also lowers the chance of rainfall; Ethiopia has experienced famine and droughts because of this. 98% of Ethiopia’s forests have disappeared over the last 50 years.
Within 43 years, Kenya’s forest coverage decreased from about 10% to 1.7%.
Deforestation in Madagascar has also led to desertification, soil loss, and water source degradation, resulting in the country’s inability to provide necessary resources for its growing population. In the last five years, Nigeria lost nearly half of its primary forests.
In Africa, 70 percent of the rural population relies on natural resources including forests for their livelihoods. Since natural forests are being degraded, people are beginning to see a commercial opportunity in planting trees on their own farms and marketing forest products to fill a growing demand-supply gap.
This has led to the formation of forest farm producer organizations and federations in many African countries.
There’s much less known about both climate and forest and people and there interaction in Africa compared to many other regions of the world
The UN estimated that in 2000 some 1.6 billion people around the world, including many of the world’s poorest, derived at least part of their food, income or medical needs directly from the forest. Of those, some 70 million indigenous people depend on the forests for much of their livelihoods.
The African continent contains about 30 percent of the world’s global rainforests, second only to the Amazon. Scientists and conservationists met at Oxford University to discuss changes the forests are expected to undergo in the 21st Century
indeed ,Ethiopia’s government, along with organizations like Farm Africa, is starting to take steps to stop excessive deforestation
As a result of human activities and decisions such as overgrazing, the relationship between seven key ecological factors – vegetation, albedo, temperature,
precipitation, soil moisture, wind erosion, and water erosion – becomes unbalanced.