Due to Africa’s position across equatorial and subtropical latitudes in both the northern and southern hemisphere, several different climate types can be found on the continent of Africa
Temperate climates remain rare through the continent except at very high elevations and along the fringes. In fact, the climate of Africa is more dependent to rainfall amount than to temperatures as they are consistently high
To describe weather conditions across the continent of Africa in specific terms is difficult in such a small space, so we’ll opt for general terms
Africa is expected to be one of the continents hardest hit by climate change, with an increase in severe droughts, floods and storms expected to threaten the health of populations and economies alike
African deserts are the sunniest and the driest parts of the continent due to the prevailing presence of the subtropical Ridge with subsiding, hot, dry air masses. Africa holds many heat-related records : the continent has the hottest extended region year-round, the areas with the hottest summer climate, the highest sunshine duration etc.
Most of Africa is in the tropics, and except for the peaks of mountains in the Great Rift Valley, it never freezes. The continent’s northern half is primarily desert or arid, while its central and southern areas contain both savanna plains and very dense jungle (rainforest) regions.
Africa is the hottest continent on earth; dry lands and deserts comprise 60% of the entire land surface. The Sahara Desert (including its satellite deserts) is the world’s largest hot desert, and temperature above 37.78 °C (100 °F) are common. In fact, the record for the highest temperature ever recorded was set in Libya in 1922; 58 °C – (136 °F).
One of the biggest threats facing the continent is also one of the hardest for scientists to definitively pin on climate change.
To the immediate south of the Sahara Desert in the Sahel region, drought and annual rains way below average are rather common, and major dust storms are a frequent occurrence. In the central African rain forests (along the Equator) warm to hot climate conditions are the norm with very high humidity; Africa’s heaviest rains fall in this area.
Africa will need to act to reduce man-made climate change as well as putting in place strategies to deal with those which cannot be avoided, but it is not going to be cheap